Transport

Publications

Cockram, M.S. 2020. Welfare issues associated with the transport of cull sows to slaughter. Veterinary Record 186: 183-184.

Cockram, M.S. 2019. Fitness of animals for transport to slaughter. Canadian Veterinary Journal 60:423-429.

Roy, R.C., Riley, C.B., Stryhn, H., Dohoo, I. and Cockram, M.S. 2019. Infrared thermography for the ante mortem detection of bruising in horses following transport to a slaughter plant. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 5:344. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00344

Cockram, M.S., Dulal, K.J., Mohamed, R.A. and Revie, C.W. 2019. Risk factors for bruising and mortality of broilers during manual handling, module loading, transport and lairage. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 99: 50-65.

Cockram, M.S. and Dulal, K.J. 2018. Injury and mortality in broilers during handling and transport to slaughter. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 98: 416–432. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2017-0076

Caffrey, N.P., Dohoo, I.R. and Cockram, M.S. 2017. Factors affecting mortality risk during transportation of broiler chickens for slaughter in Atlantic Canada. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 147: 199-208.

Roy, R.C., Cockram, M.S. and Dohoo, I.R. 2015. Welfare of horses transported to slaughter in Canada: Assessment of welfare and journey risk factors affecting welfare. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 95: 509-522.

Roy, R.C., Cockram, M.S., Dohoo, I.R. and Riley, C.B. 2015. Injuries in horses transported to slaughter in Canada. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 95: 523-531.

Roy, R.C., Cockram, M.S., Dohoo, I.R. and Ragnarsson, S. 2015. Transport of horses for slaughter in Iceland. Animal Welfare 24: 485-495.

Roy, R.C. and Cockram, M.S. 2015. Patterns and durations of journeys by horses transported from the USA to Canada for slaughter. Canadian Veterinary Journal 56: 581-586.

Cockram, M.S., Murphy, E., Ringrose, S., Welmelsfelder, F., Miedema, H.M. and Sandercock, D.A. 2012. Behavioural and physiological measures following treadmill exercise as potential indicators to evaluate fatigue in sheep. Animal 6: 1491-1502.

Cockram, M.S. and Spence, J.Y. 2012. The effects of driving events on the stability and resting behaviour of cattle, young calves and pigs. Animal Welfare 21: 403-417.

Cockram, M.S. 2007. Criteria and potential reasons for maximum journey times for farm animals destined for slaughter. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 106: 234-243.

Cockram, M.S., Baxter, E M., Smith, L.A., Bell, S., Howard, C.M., Prescott, R.J. and Mitchell, M.A. 2004. Effect of driver behaviour, driving events and road type on the stability and resting behaviour of sheep in transit. Animal Science 79: 165-176.

Grigor, P.N., Cockram, M.S., Steele, W.B., McIntyre, J., Williams, C.L., Leushuis, I.E. and van Reenen, C.G. 2004. A comparison of the welfare and meat quality of veal calves slaughtered on the farm with those subjected to transportation and lairage. Livestock Production Science 91: 219-228.

Grigor, P.N., Cockram, M.S., Steele, W.B., Le Sueur, C.J., Forsyth, R.E., Guthrie, J.A., Johnson, A.K., Sandilands, V., Reid, H.W., Sinclair, C. and Brown, H.K. 2001. Effects of space allowance during transport and duration of mid-journey lairage period on the physiological, behavioural and immunological responses of young calves during and after transport. Animal Science 73:341-360.

Cockram, M.S., Kent, J.E., Goddard, P.J., Waran, N.K., Jackson, R.E., McGilp, I.M., Southall, E.L., Amory J.R., McConnell, T.I., O’Riordan, T. and Wilkins, B.S. 2000. Behavioural and physiological responses of sheep to 16h transport and a novel environment post-transport. Veterinary Journal 159: 139-146.

Jackson, R.E., Cockram, M.S., Goddard, P.J., Doherty, O.M., McGilp, I.M. and Waran, N.K. 1999. The effects of 24 h water deprivation when associated with some aspects of transportation on the behaviour and blood chemistry of sheep. Animal Welfare 8: 229-241.

Cockram, M.S., Kent, J.E., Waran, N.K., McGilp, I.M., Jackson, R.E., Amory, J.R., Southall, E.L., O’Riordan, T., McConnell, T.I. and Wilkins, B.S. 1999. Effects of a 15H journey followed by either 12H starvation or ad libitum hay on the behaviour and blood chemistry of sheep. Animal Welfare 8: 135-148.

Cockram, M.S., Kent, J.E., Jackson, R.E., Goddard, P.J., Doherty, O.M., McGilp, I.M., Fox, A., Studdert-Kennedy, T.C., McConnell, T.I. and O’Riordan, T. 1997. Effect of lairage during 24 h of transport on the behavioural and physiological responses of sheep. Animal Science 65: 391-402.

Grigor, P.N., Goddard, P.J., Cockram, M.S., Rennie, S.C. and MacDonald, A.J. 1997. The effects of some factors associated with transportation on the behavioural and physiological reactions of farmed red deer. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 52: 179-189.

Jarvis, A.M., Cockram, M.S. and McGilp, I.M. 1996. Bruising and biochemical measures of stress, dehydration and injury determined at slaughter in sheep transported from farms or markets. British Veterinary Journal 152: 719-722.

Jarvis, A.M., Harrington, D.W.J. and Cockram, M.S. 1996. Effect of source and lairage on some behavioural and biochemical measurements of feed restriction and dehydration in cattle at a slaughterhouse. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 50: 83-94.

Jarvis, A.M., Messer, C.D.A. and Cockram, M.S. 1996. Handling, bruising and dehydration of cattle at the time of slaughter. Animal Welfare 5: 259-270.

Cockram, M.S., Kent, J.E., Goddard, P.J., Waran, N.K., McGilp, I.M., Jackson, R.E., Muwanga, G.M. and Prytherch, S. 1996. Effect of space allowance during transport on the behavioural and physiological responses of lambs during and after transport. Animal Science 62: 461-477.

Jarvis, A.M. and Cockram, M.S. 1995. Handling of sheep at markets and the incidence of bruising. Veterinary Record 136: 582-585.

Jarvis, A.M. and Cockram, M.S. 1994. Effect of handling and transport on bruising of sheep sent directly from farms to slaughter. Veterinary Record 135: 523-527.

Cockram, M.S. and Lee, R.A. 1991. Some preslaughter factors affecting the occurrence of bruising in sheep. British Veterinary Journal 147: 120-125.

Book chapters

Cockram, M.S. 2007. Sheep Transport. In Livestock Handling and Transport, 3rd Edition Edited by T. Grandin. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UK. P184-198.

Cockram, M.S. 2014 Sheep Transport. In Livestock Handling and Transport, 4th Edition Edited by T. Grandin. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UK. P 228-244.

Cockram, M.S. 2019. Sheep Transport. In Livestock Handling and Transport, 5th Edition. Edited by T. Grandin. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UK. P 239-253.

Cockram, M.S. 2017. Understanding the effects of handling, transportation, lairage and slaughter on cattle welfare and beef quality. In: Ensuring Safety and Quality in the Production of Beef Volume 2; Quality. Edited by M. Dikeman. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK. P135-179.

Cockram, M.S. and Velarde, A. 2022. Sheep. In: Preslaughter Handling and Slaughter of Meat Animals. Edited by L. Faucitano. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 267-310.

Cockram M.S. 2023. Transportation. In Routledge Handbook of Animal Welfare, 1st Edition. Edited by A. Knight, C. Phillips and P. Spark. Routledge, Abington, UK. 128-142. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003182351

Video
Careful Driving and Animal Welfare. The effect of driver behaviour on the behaviour of livestock in-transit. Training video for drivers of livestock vehicles based on DEFRA funded research project http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4sQ3Etj9K5I

NFACC Code of Practice

Brockhoff, E., Brown, J. Cockram, M., Crowe, T., Faucitano, L., Haley, D., Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K., Schwean-Lardner, K., Stojkov, Y. and Rioja-Lang, F. 2018. Code of Practice for The Care and Handling of Farm Animals: Transportation Review of Scientific Research on Priority Welfare Issues. http://www.nfacc.ca/resources/codes-of-practice/transport/transportation_sc_report_mar2018.pdf
lead author on chapters on:
Introduction 1-2.
Equines 72-78.
Sheep 79-85.

Canadian Veterinary Medical Association

Lead on response to amendments to The Health of Animals Regulations (Humane Transportation).
Witness representing CVMA at the Standing Committee on Agriculture and Agri-Food (AGRI) for session on Amendments to Health of Animals Regulations (Humane Transportation), Ottawa, April 2017.
Written briefing notes to Committee http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/HOC/Committee/421/AGRI/Brief/BR8852728/br-external/CanadianVeterinaryMedicalAssociationCunningham-e.pdf
Oral presentation and questions from Committee Members http://www.parl.gc.ca/Committees/en/AGRI/StudyActivity?studyActivityId=9387332