“We are Building a Critical Voice Together”: The Second Nunavut Master of Education Program 2010–2013
The creation of Nunavut opened many possibilities for Inuit educators to take on leadership, but it also meant that a wide range of knowledge and skills were required to meet qualifications for leadership at the community, school, and territorial levels. This report summarizes the successes and challenges of one innovative higher learning program developed to fill this need, the Nunavut Master of Education (Nunavut MEd) program, first offered by the University of Prince Edward Island (UPEI) in 2006 to 2009, and offered again from 2010 to 2013.
The funding partner, the Nunavut Department of Education, commissioned this report on the program offered from 2010 to 2013 to evaluate how well it met the needs of students in a Northern context. Program research aimed to uncover what worked well and what could be improved for the Northern students’ learning experiences and outcomes, and for program delivery. Data were collected from program participants, instructors, and partners at UPEI and the Nunavut Department of Education on multiple occasions and in various formats over the program’s duration.
The Nunavut MEd 2010-2013 was a part-time, course-based program offered over three years using a combination of face-to-face and distance learning: two face-to-face courses were offered each summer, one face-to-face course each fall, along with a distance education course offered each winter. Four face-to-face courses took place in Iqaluit, one in Rankin Inlet, and two at UPEI in Charlottetown, PEI. Inuit instructors co-taught the courses alongside PhD-trained instructors in order to provide a top quality bilingual and bicultural learning experience that incorporated both Inuit and Western perspectives and content. A counsellor also provided support for students during face-to-face courses offered in the program.
Key findings indicate that program participants grew as scholars, researchers, and leaders. Students felt they had improved critical thinking skills. Students also indicated that they were empowered by knowledge about the process of decolonization and by the acquisition of deeper Inuit knowledge. They also reported personal transformation and experienced personal healing, as well as changes in their confidence levels and ability to voice their concerns. Student experience was enhanced by the inclusion of Inuit knowledge delivered by Elders, guests, Inuit co-instructors, and by teaching one another. Inuuqatigiitsiarniq ‘community, relationship, and respect’, as fostered through the cohort model and careful hiring of instructors familiar with Northern contexts, laid the foundation for a safe learning space for the MEd students. Co-teaching teams enabled instructors to give intensive support to this special cohort of Indigenous women throughout their journey in graduate education.
Results also show that while students’ acknowledge distance learning as a necessary component to learning in the North, they strongly preferred face-to-face classes. In commenting on specific teaching practices, instructors highlighted the need for extensive preparation by students and instructors in order to make the most of intensive face-to-face courses. They also advocated for an approach to courses that were designed with few, and very clear, assignments that provided substantial class time to reach in-depth insights. While students grew in all areas of self-expression, results indicated that more time and specialized strategies were needed to support the growth of English-as-second-language scholars in order to develop as academic writers both in English and in Inuktut.
Graduates emphasized that the opportunity to study in Nunavut made it possible for them to graduate. Research indicated that graduates were unsure if they would have been successful if they had been required to study outside the territory, self-finance, or study without the support of a cohort of students who shared their cultural and linguistic background. The data gathered reveal effective teaching practices for Northern students, and highlight struggles that took place during this three-year program. A comprehensive summary of recommended practices for future programs offered in Nunavut is included in this report.
Research data enable readers to hear the unique perspective of Inuit graduate students, and provide insight into the significance of this program in the lives of Inuit educators who are also emerging scholars of Inuit education. Just as research on the 2006-2009 Nunavut MEd (Walton et al., 2010) provided a foundation for continuing to improve in the second offering of the program, and contributed to the literature on success factors in post-secondary Inuit education (Tompkins, McAuley & Walton, 2009), it is hoped that this report on the 2010-2013 Nunavut MEd program will continue to build the foundation upon which graduate level education may be offered in Nunavut and contribute to the ongoing story of decolonizing Inuit education in the post-Nunavut era.
“ ᓂᐱᖃᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᕗᒍᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᖃᒻᒪᕆᑦᑐᒥᑦ” ᐊᐃᑉᐱᖅᑐᖅ ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓕᕆᓂᕐᒪᕆᒃ 2010-2013
ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᔩᑦ ᐅᓂᒃᑳᖓᑦ ᓇᐃᓈᖅᓯᒪᔪᖅ
ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᖅᑕᐅᒻᒪᑦ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᕈᖅᑐᖃᓚᐅᖅᐳᖅ ᐊᒥᓱᓂᑦ ᐱᕕᑦᓴᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂᑦ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᓴᐃᔨᓄᑦ ᓯᕗᓕᕈᑎᒋᔪᓐᓇᖅᑕᖏᓐᓂᑦ, ᑕᒪᓐᓇᓗ ᑐᑭᖃᕆᓪᓗᓂ ᓯᕗᓕᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᒥᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᓂᖃᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᕐᒥᑦ ᑕᒪᑐᒥᖓᓗ ᐱᔪᓐᓇᑦᓯᐊᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂᑦ ᐱᑕᖃᕆᐊᖃᖅᑐᓂ ᓄᓇᓕᓐᓂ, ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕕᓐᓂ, ᐊᕕᑦᑐᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂᓗ. ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᐅᓂ˙ᑲᖅ ᐱᓗᐊᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᖅᐳᖅ ᑲᔪᓯᑦᓯᐊᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂᑦ ᐊᑦᓱᕈᕈᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂᓪᓗ ᖁᕙᓯᓐᓂᖅᓴᓕᕆᓂᕐᒥ ᓴᓇᑐᒋᐊᖃᖅᑐᓂᓗ ᑕᒪᑐᒥᖓ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᖅ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᑦᓴᓕᐅᕐᓂᐅᑉ ᓴᖅᑭᖅᑐᖃᕐᓂᐊᖅᐸᑦ ᑭᓐᖒᒪᔭᐅᔪᓂᑦ, ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓕᕆᓂᕐᒪᕆᒃ, ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖅᐹᒥ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᐅᓚᐅᒻᑐᖅ ᓯᓚᑦᑐᓴᕐᕕᔾᔪᐊᖓᓂ (ᐳᕆᓐᔅ ᐃᑦᐅᐊᑦ) ᕿᑭᖅᑕᖓᓂ, Prince Edward Island, 2006-ᒥᑦ 2009-ᒧᑦ, ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᐅᒃᑲᓐᓂᓕᓚᐅᕐᒥᔪᖅ 2010-2013-ᖑᑎᓪᓗᒍ..
ᑮᓇᐅᔭᖃᖅᑎᑦᓯᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᑲᑐᔾᔨᖃᑕᐅᔪᖅ, ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓕᕆᕕᖓ, ᐊᑭᓖᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐆᒪ ᐅᓂᒃᑳᓕᐊᑉ ᐊᑭᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ 2010-2013-ᖑᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑕᐅᖁᓗᒋᑦ ᑎᑭᐅᑎᔭᐅᑦᓯᐊᕋᓗᐊᕐᒪᖔᑕ ᑭᓐᖒᒪᔭᖏᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑕᐅᓂᖏᑦ ᑐᕌᖅᑎᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᓇᓪᓕᐊᒃ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᑦᓯᐊᕐᒪᖔᑕ ᐊᑲᐅᓯᒋᐊᕐᕕᖃᕐᒪᖔᑕᓗ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᐅᔪᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑕᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᑐᖔᓂᓗ ᓴᖅᑭᖅᑐᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᑦᑑᒻᒪᖔᑕ, ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᐅᔪᓪᓗ ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑕᐅᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ. ᑐᑭᓯᒋᐊᕈᑎᑦᓴᐃᑦ ᓄᐊᑕᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᐅᔪᓂ ᐱᖃᑕᐅᔪᓂᑦ, ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᑎᑦᓯᔪᓂᑦ, ᑲᑐᔾᔨᖃᑕᐅᔪᓄᓪᓗ ᓯᓚᑦᑐᓴᕐᕕᔾᔪᐊᒥ ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥᓗ ᐱᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓕᕆᔨᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᒥᓱᐊᖅᑎᖅᓱᑎᒃ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᓐᖏᑦᑐᓂᓪᓗ ᑐᓐᖓᕕᖃᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐃᖏᒃᕋᓂᖓᑕ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ.
ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓕᕆᓂᕐᒪᕆᒃ 2010-2013 ᐅᓪᓘᑉᐃᓚᐃᓐᓇᖓᓂ, ᐃᖏᕐᕋᓂᖃᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᓂᑦ ᐱᖓᓱᓂᑦ ᐱᖃᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᑦ ᑲᑎᑕᐅᓂᖏᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᕕᓪᓚᑦᑖᒥ ᐊᑑᑎᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᖓᓯᑦᑐᒧᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕆᐊᖃᑦᑕᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᐅᕙᑦᑐᑦ ᐊᐅᔭᒃᑯᑦ, ᐊᑕᐅᓯᐊᖅᑐᑎᒃ ᓇᔫᑎᓪᓚᑦᑖᖅᑐᑎᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᐊᕐᓂᖃᖅᐸᑦᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐊᑦᓵᒃᑯᑦ, ᐃᖏᕐᕋᑲᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐅᖓᓯᑦᑐᒧᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕆᐊᕐᓂᖅ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᐅᔪᖅ ᐅᑭᐅᑕᒫᑦ. ᑎᓴᒪᑦ ᓇᔫᑎᓪᓚᑦᑖᖅᑐᑎᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᒃᓂᖅᑕᖃᖅᑐᓂ ᐃᖃᓗᓐᓂ, ᐊᑕᐅᓯᐊᖅᑐᑎᒃ ᑲᖏᖠᓂᕐᒥ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᒪᑦᕉᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᕕᔾᔪᐊᖓᓂ UPEI ᓵᓚᑦᑕᐅᓐ PEI.-ᒥ. ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᑎᑦᓯᔩᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᑎᑦᓯᖃᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᓯᑦᓯᖃᑎᖃᖅᑐᑎᒃ ᐸᐃᑉᐹᖁᑎᓕᒻᒪᕆᓐᓂᑦ PhD-ᒥᑦ ᐱᑕᖃᖁᓪᓗᒍ ᐊᑲᐅᓛᓂᑦ ᑕᒪᒃᑮᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᑎᒌᓐᖏᑦᑐᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᖃᑎᒌᓐᖏᑦᑐᓄᓪᓗ ᐊᑐᖅᑎᑕᐅᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᓪᓗ ᐃᓱᒪᔾᔪᓯᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐃᓗᓂᖏᓐᓪᓗ. ᐃᓅᓯᓕᕆᔨᑕᖃᓚᐅᕐᒥᔪᖅ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᓱᐃᔪᒥᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᓂᑦ ᓇᔫᑎᖃᑎᒌᓪᓚᑦᑖᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓯᒪᔪᑦ.
ᖃᐅᔨᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᔪᑦ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᐱᖁᖅᐹᓪᓕᕈᑕᐅᓯᒪᒋᐊᖏᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑦᓯᔨᒻᒪᕇᓐᓄᑦ, ᖃᐅᓯᓴᖅᑎᓄᑦ, ᓯᕗᓕᖅᑎᓄᓪᓗ. ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑏᑦ ᐃᑉᐱᒋᔭᖃᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᑦᓯᐊᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᐱᕚᓪᓕᖅᓯᒪᒋᐊᖏᑦ. ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑏᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᓚᐅᕐᒥᔪᑦ ᓴᓐᖏᓂᖅᑖᖅᐸᓪᓕᓂᕐᒥᓂᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᔭᒥᓂᑦ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᓪᓗᒍ ᐊᐅᓚᑕᓯᒪᓂᖅ ᒐᕙᒪᐅᓯᒪᔪᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᑐᔫᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ. ᑖᒃᑯᐊᓗ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᕆᐊᓚᐅᕐᒥᔪᑦ ᐃᒻᒥᓄᑦ ᐊᑦᑐᐊᔪᑦ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᕆᐊᖏᑦ ᐅᔾᔨᕆᓪᓗᑎᓪᓗ ᐊᑲᐅᓯᕙᓪᓕᓂᕐᒥᓂᑦ ᒪᒥᓴᕐᓂᒃᑯᑦ, ᑭᔨᒍᓱᓐᖏᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᕐᓂᕐᒥᓂᓪᓗ ᐅᖃᕈᓐᓇᖅᓯᓂᑦᓴᐅᓕᕐᓂᕐᒥᓂᓪᓗ ᐃᓱᒫᓘᑎᒻᒥᓂᑦ.
ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑏᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᒥᓐᓄᑦ ᐱᕚᓪᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᓂᕋᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓚᐅᑎᑕᐅᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔭᖏᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑦᓯᒍᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐃᓐᓇᕆᔭᐅᔪᓄᑦ, ᐃᓚᐅᖃᑕᐅᔪᓄᑦ, ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᑎᑦᓯᖃᑕᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᒻᒥᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᖃᑦᑕᐅᑎᓂᕐᒥᓄᑦ. ᐃᓅᖃᑎᒌᑦᓯᐊᕐᓂᖅ, ᓄᓇᖅᑲᑎᒌᓐᓂᖅ, ᐊᑦᑐᐊᖃᑦᑎᒌᓐᓂᖅ ᐅᐱᒋᖃᖅᑕᐅᑎᓂᕐᓗ, ᐊᑐᖅᑎᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᖅᑐᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐱᓕᕆᖃᑎᒌᓐᓂᖅ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᓇᓱᐊᑦᓯᐊᕐᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑖᕐᓂᖅ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᑎᑦᓯᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᑦ ᖃᐅᔾᔨᑎᖃᑦᓯᐊᖅᑐᓂᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᐅᑕᐅᓂᕐᒥᑦ, ᑐᓐᖓᕕᑦᓯᐊᕙᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᐊᑦᑕᓇᐃᑦᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᑎᑦᓯᒍᑕᐅᓂᖓ ᐱᔪᓐᓇᑎᑦᓯᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᑦ ᖁᕙᓯᓐᓂᖅᐹᒥᑦ. ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᑎᑦᓯᖃᑎᒌᓐᓂᖅ ᑲᑐᔾᔨᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐱᔪᓐᓇᑎᑦᓯᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᑎᑦᓯᔨᓂᑦ ᐅᖁᒪᐃᑦᑐᓕᕆᓂᕐᒥᑦ ᓇᔪᒻᒥᑦᓯᒍᓐᓇᖅᓯᑦᓯᐊᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᐅᖏᑦᑐᒃᑰᖅᑐᓂᑦ ᓄᓇᖃᖅᑳᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂᑦ ᐊᕐᓇᓂᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᕐᒥᑦ ᐱᔭᕇᕋᓱᐊᖅᑐᓄᑦ.
ᓴᖅᑭᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᑕᑯᑎᑦᓯᕗᑦ ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑏᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᓯᒪᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐅᖓᓯᑦᑐᒥ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᖅ ᐱᑕᖃᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᖓᓂᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂᑦᑕᐅᖅ ᓇᔫᑎᓂᖅ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕕᐅᑉ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ ᐊᑲᐅᓂᖅᓴᐅᒋᐊᖓ. ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᕆᐊᖅᑐᑎᓪᓗᑎ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑦᓯᒍᑕᐅᒍᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐱᑕᖃᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᕈᐃᒋᐊᖃᖅᐸᒻᒪᑕ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᑦᓴᓂᑦ ᐊᒥᓱᓂᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᑎᑦᓯᕙᑦᑐᓄᓪᓗ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᕕᐅᑉ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ. ᑖᒃᑯᐊᓗ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᐃᓚᐅᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑦᓯᒍᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᓴᒻᒥᔭᐅᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐊᒥᓱᐊᓘᓐᖏᓪᓗᑎᒃ, ᐊᓚᒡᒐᐃᑦᓯᐊᖁᓪᓗᒋᓪᓗ ᐱᔭᑦᓴᖅᑖᕆᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᕕᐅᑉ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ ᑎᑭᐅᑎᔪᓐᓇᑎᑦᓯᓗᑎᒃ ᐃᑎᔪᒥᑦ ᑐᑭᓯᔭᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂᑦ. ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑏᑦ ᐱᕈᖅᐹᓪᓕᕈᑎᖃᕋᓗᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᑕᒪᐃᓐᓂ ᐃᒻᒥᓂᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᒋᔭᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᓐᓇᖅᓯᑦᓯᐊᕐᓂᕐᒥᑦ, ᓴᖅᑭᖅᑐᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᒍᑕᐅᓚᐅᕐᒥᔪᑦ ᐱᕕᖃᑦᓯᐊᑲᓐᓂᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᕐᒥᑦ ᖃᓄᖅᑑᕈᑕᐅᔪᓪᓗ ᑐᕌᖓᑎᑕᐅᓂᖏᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᑦᓯᒪᑦᓯᐊᑲᓐᓂᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐱᕈᖅᐹᓪᓕᕈᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᑦᓯᐊᕆᐅᖅᓴᒍᒪᔪᓄᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᕆᐅᕐᓂᐊᖅᐸᑕ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕋᑦᓴᐅᔪᓂᑦ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᓄᑦᑎᑐᓪᓗ.
ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑕᒥᓂᑦ ᐱᔭᕇᖅᑐᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᓪᓚᕆᑦᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᓚᐅᕐᓂᕐᒥᓄᑦ ᓄᓇᕘᒥ ᐱᔭᕇᕈᓐᓇᓚᐅᕐᓂᒥᓐᓂᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑕᒥᓂᑦ. ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᖅ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᒍᑕᐅᒻᒥᔪᖅ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑕᒥᓂᑦ ᐱᔭᕇᖅᑐᑦ ᓇᓗᓂᕋᖅᑐᑦ ᐱᔭᕇᕈᓐᓇᕋᔭᓚᐅᕐᒪᖔᑕ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᓚᐅᕈᑎᒃ ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᓯᓚᑖᓂ, ᐃᒻᒥᓂᑦ ᐊᑭᓕᖅᑐᐃᒋᐊᖃᕈᑎᒃ ᐅᕙᓗ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑕᐅᓚᐅᓐᖏᒃᑯᑎᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᐅᖃᑎᒥᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᖃᖃᑎᒥᓄᑦ. ᑎᑎᕋᖅᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᓄᐊᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᑦᓯᔪᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᖃᑦᓯᐊᕆᐊᖏᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᑎᑦᓯᒍᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᐅᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᓄᑦ, ᐊᓚᒡᒐᐃᓕᖅᑎᑦᓯᓪᓗᑎᓪᓗ ᐊᑦᓱᕈᕈᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᓂᑦ ᐱᒐᓱᑦ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ. ᓇᐃᓈᖅᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᐊᑕᖏᖅᑐᓂᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᓕᒃ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᕆᐊᕈᑕᐅᓯᒪᕗᖅ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ ᓯᕗᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ ᐃᓗᐊᓃᖃᑕᐅᖁᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐅᕙᓂ ᐅᓂᒃᑳᓕᐊᖑᔪᒥ.
ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑕᐅᔪᓂᑦ ᑐᖅᑯᖅᐃᕕᒃ ᐅᖃᓕᒫᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑦᓯᕗᖅ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐱᔭᕇᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑕᒥᓐᓂᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᒋᔭᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᐅᖏᓐᓂᖏᓐᓂᓪᓗ, ᐱᑕᖃᖅᑎᑦᓯᓪᓗᓂᓗ ᑐᑭᓯᔭᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐃᓗᓕᒻᒪᕆᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑕᐅᑎᑕᐅᔫᑉ ᐃᓅᓯᖏᓐᓂ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᑎᑦᓯᔨᐅᔪᑦ ᑎᑭᐅᑎᕙᓪᓕᐊᔪᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᑦᓴᓕᐅᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᑦ. ᑕᐃᒫᑦᑕᐅᖅ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑕᐅᔪᑦ 2006-2009-ᒥ ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᖁᑦᓯᓂᖅᐹᓂᑦ (Walton et al., 2010) ᐱᑕᖃᖅᑎᑦᓯᓚᐅᖅᐳᖅ ᑐᓐᖓᕕᒋᔭᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᒥᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᐃᓐᓇᖁᓪᓗᒍ ᐱᐅᓯᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᖓ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑕᐅᔫᑉ, ᐃᑲᔪᖅᓯᓪᓗᓂᓗ ᐅᖃᓕᒫᒐᑦᓴᓕᐅᕐᓂᕐᒥᑦ ᑲᔪᓯᒍᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑕᐅᓂᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᑲᓐᓂᕈᒪᔪᓄᑦ. (Tompkins, McAuley & Walton, 2009), ᓂᕆᐅᒋᔭᐅᕗᖅ ᑖᓐᓇ ᐅᓂᒃᑳᓕᐊᖑᔪᖅ 2010-2013-ᒧᑦ ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑕᐅᔪᖅ ᖁᕙᓯᓐᓂᐹᒥᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓕᕆᓂᐅᑉ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ ᑐᓐᖓᕕᒋᔭᐅᓂᐊᕐᓂᖓᓂᑦ ᐱᔭᕇᕈᑕᐅᓗᓂ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᔪᓂ ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᐅᑉ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᓯᓯᒪᓗᓂᓗ ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᓚᑕᐅᓚᐅᓚᐅᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᑦ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᕆᓐᖏᑕᒥᒍᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓕᕆᓂᐅᑉ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ ᓄᓇᕗᑦᑖᓚᐅᖅᑎᓐᓇᒍ.
ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᓂᖓ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓄᐃᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ, ᐅᖃᐅᓯᐅᒋᐊᖅᓯᒪᓂᖓ ᒪᓕᒐᓕᐅᖅᑎᐅᖃᑕᐅᔪᒧᑦ ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥ, ᔫᐋᓚᓐ ᐃᔭᒍᑕᐅᐃᓚᕐᒧᑦ, 2007-ᖑᑎᓪᓗᒍ.