Animal Husbandry

The consideration of another Jersey breeder might be worth while, even though his situation may be somewhat different than that of any farmer in this province in that he has the use of a feed mixer and thereby has the advantage of mixing his feed according to his own formula. On account of the labor costs he does not grow roots but favours feeding ensi age and molasses instead. He has a prejudice against gluten meal and does not use it in his ration at all. In his formula he includes only the feeds he has to purchase having his mixture of oats and barley ground separately, and mixing it, with the mill feed at the time of feeding. He prefers this plan, as it enables him to increase or decrease the grain in his mixture for any animal at any time. The mixture which he has prepared in the mill and its feeding analysis is as follows:

Amount 400; ingredient oil cake; protein 38 per cent; fat 5 per cent.

Amount 400 ; ingredient; [sic] protein 12 per cent; fat 3 per cent.

Amount 400; ingredient cotton seed meal; protein 43 per cent; fat 6 per cent.

Amount 400; ingredient distillers grains; protein 25 per cent; fat 6 per cent.

Amount 400; ingredient hominy; protein 10 per cent; fat 8 per cent.

Amount 125; ingredients molasses; protein 8 per cent;

Amount 30; ingredient bone meal;

Amount 15; ingredient iodine salt;

Amount 15; ingredient charcoal;

This mixture would aggregate 2,125 pounds of feed and 60 pounds of mineral matter. It is considered very satisfactory for mineral content, and the feed part of it would run slightly over 24 per cent in protein. At previling [sic] prices this mixture would cost about $30 per ton.The owner crushes oats and barley in about the ratio of 2 to 1 and then feeds three parts of grain to one of the mill mixture. If the mixed grain will average 12 per cent protein, this would give a mixture for feeding of 15 per cent protein and about 3.75 per cent of fat. If a mixture of oats and barley, such as this is worth $20 per ton, then a ton of this would cost $22.50. About 15 pounds of this mixture per day is fed to the cows in two feeds. This of course would vary under special circumstances. 

Ensilage and alfalfa are fed as roughage by the owner, who is particularly skillful in curing alfalfa hay. He keeps it from the hot noon-day sun and has solved the problem of retaining all the leaves and storing it in the barn, to come out with the most appealing green color one would wish to see.

When putting alfalfa in the barn it is sprinkled with salt, which absorbs some of the moisture and gives the hay an appetizing taste. About one gallon of salt is used on each load and this salt on the hay and that included in the meal mixture [sic], is the only salt fed to these cattle while in the stable.

The cows are fed a light feed of alfalfa the first thing in the morning about 6 o’clock, and as they eat it the milking is done. After milking, each cow is given about half a bushel of ensilage with her meal ration on it. At 12 o’clock noon, the cows are fed alfalfa again and after the evening milking are given ensilage and meal as in the morning. They are given no further feed until the following morning.

The owner has another ration which he uses as a supplement for his cows on test, and which he also feeds to his calves. This is a more bulky feed, as it contains but pulp [sic] ,and it is not so strong in concentrates as the first feed, consequently it can be used in addition to the other ration to stimulate milk production, without danger to the cow’s digestion.

This mixtures consists of: 

1000lbs. oats and barley at about 2 to 1. 

100 lbs. of oil cake.

100 lbs. of cotton seed meal.

500 lbs. bran.

500 lbs. dried beet pulp.

125 lbs. molasses.

30 lbs. bone meal.

15 lbs. Charcoal.

15 lbs. iodized salt.

This mixture would have a protein content of 13.5 per cent. The daily beet pulp would add a succulence to ot that is very important when cows are on heavy grain feed.

This farmer’s plan is to feed the first mentioned mixture after milking in the morning and also about 4 o’clock in the afternoon, and feed this later one at noon and again at 9 p.m., feeding about two gallons of it to a feed, which would make a daily ration about 15 pounds. These two rations should be fed only to heavy milking cows on test that are being milked three times a day. When both rations are fed, less ensilage is used, as the beet pulp in the latter ration will displace some of the ensilage.

In feeding roughage only good quality alfalfa is used, as the owner is opposed to using any rough, coarse feed, and is particular to have his cows well bedded so they can be comfortable.

Calves are fed whole milk for three weeks only, and then gradually changed to skim milk, feeding about one quart of skim milk at a feed.

As a supplement the calves are fed a small quantity of the mixture containing the beet pulp, and are given choice alfalfa as well. The heifers in the herd are grown on a small grain ration, with some of the beet pulp mixture and are also fed ensilage and goof alfalfa.

The amount of grain fed to young cattle depends upon their condition. The object is to keep them in thrifty growing condition without too much tendency to fatten.

– Animal Husbandry, The Charlottetown Guardian. December 14, 1935